Whenever possible, the starting of a three-phase cage motor shall be direct, using contactors. In cases where the engine starting current is high some damaging consequences can occur as if direct starting is not possible, the indirect starting system is used to reduce the starting current. These indirect starting systems are: the protection system must be oversized, resulting in high cost and high voltage Leeson mrosupply drop in the mains power system. Due to this, it causes interference to equipment installed in the system.

The drive of an electric motor is only admissible via star-delta switches if it has six accessible terminals and has a nominal double voltage. The advantages are the reduced cost; high number of maneuvers; starting current reduced to 1/3 of nominal; relatively small dimensions. The disadvantages are the specific application to motors with double rated voltage and having six accessible terminals; starting torque reduced to 1/3 of nominal; the mains voltage must match the motor’s triangle voltage; the motor must achieve at least 90% of its speed regime so that, during switching, the peak current does not reach high values.



Maintenance is an expensive and complex cost source and as such needs to be well managed. Its activity within an operating system is of fundamental importance for the production and the final quality of the product.

Electric motors are responsible for much of the energy consumed in the industries where it is most effective, where they account for more than 50% of the electricity consumption of these facilities on average. They are, therefore, equipments on which it is necessary to look like priority, the energy saving.

Every operating system has an estimated lifetime and the probability of this system failing rises with the reduction of its life time. In this way it is essential to have a reliable maintenance program to act simultaneously with the production process, reducing the likelihood of production system downtime.

In electric motors the operations of control of materials and equipment have a direct effect on the mechanical and electrical study of these equipments, acting directly or indirectly on their gains. Actions should be presented which, if adopted by the maintenance technicians, will result in the improvement of the performance of the existing motors in its facilities, providing electrical energy savings.


Dimensioning Considerations – DC Motor

In order to design an electric motor of direct current, a complete study will be necessary, in a clear way with regard to the environment in which the equipment will be used. If a DC motor has to fit into a space or adjust a weight requirement, then the physical characteristics may be important factors in the selection. The configuration of the shaft and the reducer, if applied, are also considerations that should receive attention.

The configuration of the axis of origin as the motor is assembled and connected to the system that it will trigger and its correct selection is essential, so that it is compatible with the system. The optimum shaft selection increases efficiency and can save time and cost during assembly. Configurations may contain concave, round, square, hexagonal, slotted, stepped, or bolted types. The reduction or reducer is used in the DC motor to increase or reduce the speed of the shaft mechanically. Using the gear unit, the motor will have a smaller volume or weight. The types of gearboxes that are used in DC electric motors may include gearboxes, planetary gearwheels, or worm gearboxes.


Induction Motor – Theoretical Basis

The principle of operation of the electric induction motor is essentially composed of a permanent magnet suspended by a wire on an aluminum or copper disk in a bearing on a fixed iron plate. The induced parasitic currents tend to produce a unitary pole S (south) on the disk at a point located under the magnet’s north (N) rotating pole, and a unit pole N on the disk under the magnet rotating pole S. The disc turns in the same direction as the magnet, but the speed must always be lower. If the disk were activated at the same magnet speed, there would be no relative motion between the conductor and the magnetic field and the induced current would be zero and no magnetic flux or torque would be given. Coxreels 112-3-100


The field of the permanent magnet is completed through the iron plate and the disk follows the movement of the magnet due to the induced parasitic currents that appear because of the relative movement of the conductor relative to the magnetic field. By Lenz’s law, the sense of induced voltage produces a field that tends to oppose force, that is, the motion that produced the induced voltage.


Direct starting of induction motors

Direct starting is the method of driving electric motors of alternating current, where the motor is connected directly to the electrical network, that is, it happens when we apply the nominal voltage on the windings of the motor stator, in a direct way. For the implementation of this starting system, we use a contactor as a switching device and protection devices such as fuses and overload relays or circuit breakers.

It is necessary to illustrate the main diagram, also called force or power for the direct starting system 23024 skf-bearing, and we need to energize the coil of the contactor C1 so that it can activate the main contacts of the contactor by starting the motor. For this, it is important to observe the value of the supply voltage of the coil. Normally coils are fed which are supplied with voltages with the same value of the supply network (220 Vac). Protection fuses, overload relay terminals (e4), a normally open push-button for motor startup (B1) and another NF pushbutton (normally closed) are used to switch the motor off (B0 ).


Single-phase motor and starting capacitor

The single-phase induction motor has a main winding connected directly to the mains supply and a lagging auxiliary winding, usually at 90 ° from the main winding and connected in series with a capacitor. Both the auxiliary winding and the capacitor are inserted into the supply circuit only during the starting period of the motor. The capacitor allows a larger angle of lag between the main and auxiliary winding currents, thus providing high starting torque. The main winding alone develops almost the same torque as the combined windings.

22222 e/c3 SKF-Bearing

For higher velocities between 80% and 90% of the synchronous speed, the curve of the conjugate with the combined windings passes the curve of the conjugate of the main winding so that for speeds above this point, the motor has more conjugated with the auxiliary circuit switched off. Because the crossing of the curves does not always occur at the same point, and still, the centrifugal switch does not open at precisely the same speed, it is common practice to cause the aperture to occur on the average just before the curves intersect. After disconnection of the auxiliary circuit, its operation is the same as that of the split-phase electric motor.


Cogging Torque

Cogging torque is a result of the permanent interaction of the magnet produced with the permeability of the air gap manifested by the tendency of the rotor to look for stable positions, even when the motor is off, which results in a pulsating torque that does not cooperate for the total torque of the system. The cogging torque is quite harmful when it comes to precision applications because it introduces small variations in speed that generate vibrations in the engine that are felt when it operates at low speeds and with light loads.

In order to reduce this effect, some changes are made in the design of the machine, such as determining the width of the openings of the stator slots, the angle of inclination of those grooves and creation of auxiliary teeth. In cases where the cogging torque is not very extraordinary, it is customary to tilt the stator grooves, at most one groove ac motors. Theoretically, it is possible to eliminate the cogging torque by using a stator configuration which is based on the construction of a flat stator where the windings are not housed in grooves. It is a configuration that would be good for running at high speeds, as iron losses would be very low and the engine would see its weight reduced.


Influence of the environment

The ambient conditions where the engine will be installed influence its operation, since dust that deposits in its housing, when it absorbs moisture or particles of oil, forms a crust that will hinder the release of heat and because of this, the internal temperature of the engine will rise. One of the consequences is to increase the value for the winding resistance and decrease the efficiency of the motor. Cereal and steel processing areas are examples of environments that need to be taken care of with engine cooling, due to the presence of dust, dust and suspended particles.

The increase in temperature due to the presence of dirt on the housing also causes deterioration of the lubricant, oil or grease used in the bearing or bearing because its lubricity reduces with increasing temperature vem3709t. Humidity is one of the main causes of insulation failures. In humid environments, corrosion and deterioration of the insulation occurs, since humidity facilitates the deposit and absorption of dust and chemicals. Motors operating in humid environments have more failures in their insulation system than those working in dry environments subject to the same type of dirt, dust, and chemical agents.


Agências duplas, ou seja, o agente representa o comprador e o vendedor

Não consideram seus interesses específicos e podem apresentar conflitos no
processo de compra de uma casa. Por este motivo, é aconselhável procurar
um agente comprador exclusivo. As críticas negativas podem ser um sinal
revelador da ética de trabalho de um agente. Não tenha medo de pedir ao
agente uma lista de referências e clientes anteriores para avaliar o quão bem
eles trabalharão com e para você. Como vendedor de uma casa, você
normalmente procura um corretor de imóveis depois de decidir se mudar de
sua casa atual, seja porque recebeu uma oferta de emprego de outro estado ou
simplesmente porque cresceu demais seu espaço . Nesse caso, o agente do
vendedor pode ajudá-lo a vender sua casa rapidamente e, possivelmente, por
um valor alto. Normalmente, os agentes que representam os vendedores
compartilham informações sobre as casas que estão comercializando por meio
de um banco de dados do serviço de listagem múltipla (MLS). O agente de um
bom vendedor terá experiência em lidar e prevenir quaisquer possíveis
complicações que possam surgir no processo de venda.


Como começou a crise imobiliária em bauru

O fenômeno ocorrido nos anos de 2007 e 2008 nos Estados Unidos marcaram o final da primeira década do segundo milênio. Tal crise imobiliária começou por várias razões até hoje discutidas por economistas, e, entre elas, estava o alto grau de otimismo dos investidores.

Todos temos a concepção de que imóveis costumam valorizar ao longo dos anos. Porém, precisamos estar atentos em relação a oferta e a demanda por novos empreendimentos.

Foi exatamente esse desiquilíbrio que gerou a crise imobiliária norte-americana.

Entendendo o que ocorreu

A relação entre a real demanda imobiliária dos norte-americanos por novas residências e os novos empreendimentos foi desproporcional – havia mais investimentos em imóveis do que novos clientes – o valor dos imóveis subiu consideravelmente além da realidade.

E isso resultou em uma grande bolha que deu início à crise imobiliária americana. A partir do momento que os cidadãos se mostraram incapazes de pagar os preços oferecidos, houve uma drástica queda na compra e, consequentemente, a crise pegou todo mundo desprevenido.

O fenômeno que resultou na crise aconteceu de 1997 a 2005, no que ficou conhecido como o boom imobiliário americano. Os valores subiram acima do que o mercado realmente poderia absorver.

E se há uma lei irremediável, ela é a da oferta e da demanda na imobiliária Ribeirão Preto.